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blender - primary goal is to create a great, full featured, 3D CAD environment for Blender for use by engineers, designers, drafters, architects, etc. based on the OpenCascade toolkit

B9Creator - an open source photo-initiated polymer resin based 3D printing system. Supposedly a higher quality printing technology than the plastic filament based printers like RepRap. Unfortunately, they're not taking any orders until all their KickStarter pledges are fulfilled.

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Current state of consumer 3D printing

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eMachineShop

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Filabot: Plastic Filament Maker

FreeCAD - general purpose feature-based, parametric 3D modeler for CAD, MCAD, CAx, CAE and PLM, aimed directly at mechanical engineering and product design but also fits a wider range of uses in engineering, such as architecture or other engineering specialties. It is 100% Open Source and extremely modular, allowing for very advanced extension and customization.

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GeoMagic - transform 3D scan data into polygon and native CAD models for reverse engineering, product design, rapid prototyping and analysis

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NextEngine - $3K

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Open source

CAD - see also 25 (Free) 3D Modeling Applications You Should Not Miss

Blender

FreeCAD

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Photogrammetric scanning

Photogrammetry

ProJetTM 1500 Personal Color 3D Printer - $19K from Moss

ProE - Creo

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—R—

RAMPS - RepRap Arduino Mega Pololu Shield, or RAMPS for short. It is designed to fit the entire electronics needed for a RepRap in one small package for low cost. RAMPS interfaces an Arduino Mega with the powerful Arduino MEGA platform and has plenty room for expansion. The modular design includes plug in stepper drivers and extruder control electronics on an Arduino MEGA shield for easy service, part replacement, upgrade-ability and expansion. Additionally, a number of Arduino expansion boards can be added to the system as long as the main RAMPS board is kept to the top of the stack.

Repetier-Host - The Repetier-Host is a simple to use host software, which is be compatible with most firmwares around. You can add and position your STL files on the simulated printbed and slice them all together.

RepRap - a free desktop 3D printer capable of printing plastic objects. Uses plastic filament to print.  Hence, not the highest quality.  But most affordable.  Since many parts of RepRap are made from plastic and RepRap prints those parts, RepRap self-replicates by making a kit of itself - a kit that anyone can assemble given time and materials.

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Scanners

Artec MH and MHT 3D Scanners use video camera technology that captures a three-dimensional image in each frame. The frames are then combined automatically in the software into a single mesh. The scanning process is as easy as walking around the object while continuously “videoing” it from 360 degrees. These MH/MHT scanners capture brilliant color along with shape information resulting in fine-textured models - €14 900

NextEngine 3D Scanner HD - $2,995

ZScanner - $33K demo from Moss

Scanalyze

SeeMeCNC - Home of the world's most affordable ($351) 3D printer kits, the H-1. Our kits are built with high quality plastic injection molded and CNC machined parts. The parts are all manufactured by us, for us.  We use mach3, because 3D printers ARE cnc machines.  They even read Gcode like a traditional CNC machine.  What we have done is bring all the @home guys using mach3 into the 3D printer world more easily.  We wanted to show how it could be done, and how easy a 3D printer could be run under Mach3.  We also support using RAMPS setups, or similar arduino based, conventional reprap controls.  We love repetier host and firmware for controlling our machines.

SolidWorks - $4000 for basic package, $1300 for yearly maintenance.

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TechShop

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VripPack

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—Z—

ZScanner - $33K demo from Moss

25 (Free) 3D Modeling Applications You Should Not Miss